While the United States and Turkey are not part of the agreement, as countries have not declared their intention to leave the 1992 UNFCCC as “Annex 1” countries, they will continue to be required under the UNFCCC to prepare national communications and an annual greenhouse gas inventory.  Iran, Iraq, and Libya – all among the 14 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – and conflict-torn states like Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. The amount of NDCs set by each country sets the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law, for lack of specificity, normative character or mandatory language necessary for the creation of binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NPP by a set date, and no implementation if a target set out in a NSP is not met.   There will be only one “Name and Shame” system or, as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, cbs News (USA) stated, a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement has no consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A stream of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to a total collapse of the agreement.  “By ratifying the Paris agreement, Iran should make commitments that could allow it to spend significant expenditures,” the deputy environment chief said. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration handed over an official notification to the United Nations that the United States there are supporters and opponents of the deal in Iran, he said, adding that those who oppose the agreement believe that ratifying the agreement would have a considerable cost and that the costs should be financed by developed countries or international institutions. The agreement states that it would only enter into force (and thus become fully operational) if 55 countries producing at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.
On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40 percent of global emissions, made a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement. . . .